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雅思阅读材料之苹果连皮吃有助减肥

中国雅思网 发表时间:2018年4月10日

Eating unpeeled apples may keep extra pounds and obesity-related diseases at bay, a study in PLoS ONE suggests.

《美国公共科学图书馆-综合》(PLoS ONE)杂志刊载的一项研究结果显示,苹果连皮吃能帮助减肥,使机体远离肥胖相关的疾病。

Ursolic acid is a natural compound found in the waxy coats on apples and other fruits and herbs. Previous research showed that ursolic acid increased the activity of a protein that stimulated muscle growth and glucose metabolism in mice.

熊果酸是一种在苹果及其他水果和草本植物的光滑表皮中发现的天然化合物。以往的研究表明,熊果酸能够增加一种蛋白质的活性,这种蛋白质可以刺激小鼠的肌肉生长及葡萄糖代谢。

In this follow-up study, researchers in Iowa tested ursolic acid on mice with diet-induced obesity. For six weeks, one group of mice had unlimited access to a diet of high-fat food proven to cause obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. Two other groups of mice had unlimited access to the same diet, but supplemented with either 0.14 grams or 0.27 grams of ursolic acid per 100 grams of food. For comparison, an apple contains 50 milligrams of ursolic acid, equivalent to about 6% of the lowest dose given to the mice.

在这次的跟进研究中,爱荷华州的研究人员对患有饮食引起的肥胖症的小鼠进行了熊果酸测试。六周内,其中一组小鼠可以无限食用一种高脂肪食物,这种食物会引起肥胖症、葡萄糖不耐受和脂肪肝。其他两组小鼠也可以无限食用这种食物,但每100克食物分别配有0.14克和0.27克的熊果酸。一个苹果含50毫克的熊果酸,相当于给小鼠最低剂量的约6%。

Ursolic-acid mice developed more skeletal muscle but gained less weight than nonsupplemented mice, even though food intake was higher in ursolic-acid mice. Supplemented mice had greater strength and exercise capacity, and higher resting energy expenditure. Ursolic acid triggered an increase in high-energy brown fat associated with reduced obesity, though it isn't known how, researchers said. The results were the same for both ursolic-acid doses.

补充熊果酸的小鼠骨骼肌生长较好,但增加的体重比未补充熊果酸的小鼠少,尽管前者的食物摄入量较高。补充熊果酸小鼠的力量和运动能力更强,休息时消耗的能量更多。研究人员说,熊果酸引起了与减少肥胖有关的高能量褐色脂肪的增加,但尚不清楚是如何引起的。两种熊果酸剂量的结果相同。

Caveat: Humans and mice may have differing capacities for the absorption, distribution and excretion of ursolic acid, researchers said.

注意:研究人员说,人类和小鼠对熊果酸的吸收、分配和排泄能力可能有差异。

Vertigo and gender: Women develop vertigo slightly more often than men. But a study found that men with vertigo, a common balance disorder, suffer more anxiety and depression. The results contrast with earlier studies that reported psychiatric distress is higher in women with vertigo. Vertigo is a spinning sensation that can leave people feeling dizzy or nauseous. About 40% of Americans have at least one episode of vertigo in their lifetimes.

眩晕和性别:女性比男性更容易患眩晕症。但一项研究发现,患眩晕症的男性更容易焦虑和抑郁,这与以往女性眩晕症患者精神压力更大的研究结果相反。眩晕症是一种常见的平衡失调症,会让人感觉头晕或恶心。约40%的美国人在一生中至少都有一次眩晕症发作。

The latest study, published in BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders, assessed emotional response to vertigo in 202 patients treated at a Swiss clinic from 2007 to 2009. Subjects included 124 women and 78 men in their late 40s, of whom more than half had had vertigo symptoms for more than a year. Subjects rated their disability as mild, moderate or severe. Anxiety and depression were assessed on a hospital scale as possible, probable or abnormal. MRI brain scans, neurological assessments and other tests were administered.

这项最新研究刊登在《BMC耳鼻喉疾病》(BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders)杂志上,研究对象为2007年至2009年在一家瑞士诊所治疗过的202位病人,研究人员对这些病人对眩晕症的情绪反应进行了评估。研究对象包括快50岁的124名女性和78名男性,其中半数以上已经有一年多的眩晕症症状。研究对象按照轻微、中等和严重评定眩晕症对自己精神状况的影响。焦虑和抑郁程度按照医院标准划分为可能、很有可能或反常。研究人员还对他们做了核磁共振脑部扫描、神经检测及其他检查。

Severe disability was reported by 25% of the women compared with 19% of the men. But emotional distress was significantly higher in the men, possibly because dizziness over a long period is more disabling in men and a greater risk factor for anxiety and depression, researchers said. Of men who rated their disability as severe, 60% had abnormal anxiety and 67% had abnormal depression. That compared with 26% and 19% of women, respectively.

25%的女性表示自己有严重的精神障碍,男性的比例为19%。研究人员说,但男性的情绪压力显著高于女性,可能是由于长期眩晕对男性精神状况的影响更大,并且更容易造成焦虑和抑郁。认为自己精神障碍严重的男性中,60%有反常的焦虑情绪,67%有反常的抑郁情绪。女性的比例分别为26%和19%。

Caveat: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression provides only limited information on mental disorders, researchers said. Other risk factors for mental disorders weren't assessed.

注意:研究人员说,用于评定焦虑和抑郁症状的医院焦虑抑郁量表(Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale)只能为精神失常状况提供有限的信息。其他容易造成精神失常的因素未得到评估。
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